What Are Gnats and How to Avoid Them?

Have you ever been outdoors on a beautiful day and had it spoiled by pesky little bugs flying around your face? These tiny creatures are called gnats and can be a nuisance when you’re trying to enjoy the great outdoors. Whether you’re having a picnic, going for a hike, or simply sitting on your porch, gnats always seem to find a way to bother you.

In this article, we’ll look at what gnats are and give some tips on avoiding them so you can enjoy your time outside without the annoyance.

Understanding the Gnat: Basic Facts and Identification

What Does a Gnat Look Like

Gnats are small flying insects, about 1/8 inch in size. They have a slender body, long legs, and antennae. Typically, they are gray, black, or brown, with transparent or dark wings.

They can be distinguished by their delicate appearance and long, thin legs. While most gnats look similar, there are variations in appearance among different types. For instance, fungus gnats are dark gray or black with a humpbacked appearance, and eye gnats are small, yellowish, with large eyes.

These physical differences help in identifying the specific type of gnat.

Common Types of Gnats

Fungus gnats, fruit flies, and drain flies are common types of gnats. Fungus gnats like overwatered plants and moist soil. Fruit flies are attracted to ripe or rotting fruit. Drain flies are found near drains, sewers, and septic tanks.

Fungus gnats are tiny, black, and delicate. Fruit flies are reddish-brown with bright red eyes. Drain flies have fuzzy moth-like wings.

Fungus gnats live in soil, near potted plants and garden beds. Fruit flies gather near fruit, vegetables, and garbage bins. Drain flies are usually found near standing water and moist organic materials.

Knowing these differences can help in identifying and dealing with gnat infestations effectively.

Fungus Gnats

Fungus gnats are small flies commonly found in homes and gardens. They’re attracted to moisture and organic material, making them a common pest in houseplants and gardens. The Fungus Gnat life cycle consists of four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult.

The larva is the most destructive stage, as it feeds on the root hairs of plants and organic matter in the soil, causing damage to the plant’s root system. Fungus gnats are most active in the spring and summer, when they lay their eggs in the soil of potted plants or in damp, organic-rich soil in gardens.

To control Fungus Gnats, it’s important to reduce the amount of moisture in the soil and use organic pest control methods, such as yellow sticky traps or beneficial nematodes, to prevent infestations.

Fruit Flies

Fruit flies are tiny insects, about 1/8 of an inch long, with red eyes. They are often found near ripe or rotting fruits and vegetables due to being attracted to fermenting sugars. Fruit flies lay their eggs on the surface of fermenting foods or other organic materials. Once hatched, the larvae feed on the food. They mature quickly, and a pair of fruit flies can produce hundreds of offspring within weeks.

Fruit flies help break down and decompose organic matter, aiding in nutrient cycling in ecosystems. This supports the recycling of nutrients in nature by contributing to the breakdown of organic matter, along with other organisms like bacteria and fungi.

Additionally, fruit flies are commonly used in scientific research due to their short lifecycle, making them an interesting subject for studying genetics and behavior.

Drain Flies

Drain flies are small insects that resemble moths. They are often found in dark, damp places like kitchen and bathroom drains. You can recognize them by their furry look and their jerky way of flying.

Drain flies breed in standing water, sewage systems, and damp organic matter like decaying food and mildew. They go through four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. It takes about one to three weeks for them to go from egg to adult, depending on the surroundings.

Indoors, you’ll find drain flies near drains, leaky pipes, and sewage systems. They’re drawn to the organic stuff that gathers in these spots and are most active at night.

To get rid of drain flies, it’s crucial to clean and keep drains and other areas free of organic matter. You can also use drain cleaners and make sure there’s good ventilation in indoor spaces to reduce their numbers.

The Life Cycle of Gnats

Stages of Gnat Development

Gnats have four stages of development: egg, larvae, pupa, and adult. The egg stage lasts around 4-6 days, then hatches into larvae. The larvae, known as maggots, last about 4 weeks. They then move to the pupal stage, which takes around 3-4 days.

Finally, adult gnats emerge and the cycle starts again. Gnats thrive in warm, moist environments with organic matter, like overwatered potted plants or decaying plant matter in soil. Understanding their development stages and preferred conditions can help with pest control and prevention.


Gnat eggs are tiny and see-through, often found near damp areas. They are laid in groups and can be easily missed due to their size. It takes about four to six days for gnat eggs to hatch, depending on the temperature and humidity. Factors like moisture and food availability affect their development. In warm and humid conditions, the eggs hatch sooner, increasing the gnat population. In drier environments, it takes longer for the eggs to hatch.

Organic matter in the soil provides nutrients for the gnat larvae after hatching, helping them grow into adult gnats.


Gnat larvae are small, worm-like creatures. They thrive in damp, organic materials and fungi. This includes decaying plant matter and moist soil. You can often find them in areas with standing water, like ponds, swamps, and backyard birdbaths.

Gnat larvae play a crucial role in the life cycle of gnats. They go through a process of metamorphosis to become adult gnats. Unlike adult gnats, gnat larvae are aquatic. They breathe through a small tube at their posterior end to get oxygen from the water.

Adult gnats, on the other hand, are terrestrial and have wings. This enables them to fly and disperse to new locations. Understanding the differences in habitat and behavior between gnat larvae and adult gnats is essential for understanding the complete life cycle of these pesky insects.

Understanding the habits and characteristics of both gnat larvae and adult gnats can help with developing effective pest control strategies.

Pupa Stage

During the pupa stage, a gnat goes through physical changes like forming eyes, legs, and wings. This stage usually lasts for about 3-4 days before the adult gnat emerges.

Ideal conditions for gnat pupae to develop include warm temperatures, high humidity, and the presence of organic matter like decaying vegetation or soil. These factors are important for the pupae to undergo metamorphosis and become adults.


Adult gnats are often seen near moisture, like water sources and damp soil. They are attracted to decaying fruits, veggies, potted plants, and moist organic materials. Gnats are known for swarming in large groups. The mating process starts when male and female gnats meet. After mating, females lay eggs in moist areas. Once hatched, the larvae feed on organic matter and pupate before becoming adults.

These behaviors help gnats thrive, which can be frustrating for people in areas with lots of gnats.

Gnat Mating and Swarms

Gnats mate in swarms. The males gather in large groups to attract females. These groups can consist of thousands of gnats and are often seen in warm, humid places. Things like temperature, humidity, and food availability contribute to swarm formation. Gnats fly and move together in these groups. Their mating and swarming behavior can greatly impact their population and habitat by controlling their numbers and dispersing them for feeding and breeding.

Swarming also helps protect them from predators.

As a result, gnats are important for ecological processes like pollination and nutrient cycling.

Behavior and Habitat of Gnats

What Do Gnats Eat

Gnats are small flying insects. They feed on nectar, fruit juices, and plant exudates. They also feed on decaying organic matter like rotting fruits and vegetables.

Due to their size, gnats can also feed on microscopic fungi and algae in damp areas. Some gnats may even feed on the blood of animals, including humans.

Gnats get the nutrients they need by extracting liquids from their food sources. This helps them sustain their short lifespans.

Over to you

Gnats are small flying insects that can be annoying, especially in warmer months. They like moisture and decaying organic material. To avoid them, do these things:

  • Get rid of standing water
  • Keep trash bins covered
  • Seal cracks in doors and windows

Using natural repellents like essential oils or a fan can also help keep gnats away.


What are gnats?

Gnats are small, flying insects commonly found near moist areas. They can be controlled by removing standing water, using insect repellent, or setting up fly traps.

Why are gnats attracted to my home?

Gnats are attracted to moist areas and decaying organic matter in your home. To reduce their attraction, fix any leaks, keep trash covered, and regularly clean indoor plants. Keep doors and windows closed or use screens to prevent them from coming inside.

How can I avoid gnats in my house?

  1. Keep your house clean and free of food crumbs or spills.
  2. Use screens on windows to prevent gnats from entering.
  3. Dispose of overripe fruits and vegetables promptly.

How do gnats breed and multiply?

Gnats breed and multiply by laying eggs in moist organic matter such as damp soil, decaying plants, or standing water. The eggs hatch into larvae, which then develop into adults. Eliminating breeding areas and keeping your environment dry can help control their population.

What are some natural ways to get rid of gnats?

Some natural ways to get rid of gnats include using apple cider vinegar traps, placing sticky traps near infested areas, and consistently emptying and cleaning damp areas where gnats breed. Additionally, creating a vinegar solution to spray on plants can help eliminate gnats.